BIOLOGICAL BULLETIN

OF THE

fiDarine Biological laboratory

WOODS HOLE, MASS.

JEfcitorial Statt

GARY N. CALKINS Columbia University. E. G. CONKLIN Princeton University. M. H. JACOBS University of Pennsylvania. FRANK R. LILLIE University of Chicago.

GEORGE T. MOORE The Missouri Botanic Garden. T. H. MORGAN Columbia University.

W. M. WHEELER Harvard University. E. B. WILSON— Columbia University.

Managing Editor

C. R. MOORE The University of Chicago.

VOLUME LI 1 1.

WOODS HOLE. MASS. JULY TO DECEMBER, 1927

LANCASTER PRESS, INC. LANCASTER. PA.

Contents of Volume LI II

No. i. JULY, 1927.

Twenty-ninth Animal Report of the Marine Biological Lab- oratory i

No. 2. AUGUST, 1927.

CRABB, EDWARD DRANE. Anatomy and Function of the Rc- productive System in the Snail, Lyiniuea stagnalis ap- pressa Say 55

CRABB, EDWARD DRANE. The Fertilization Process in the

Snail, LymiKca st agnails apprcssa Say . . . . 67

RATCLIFFE, H. L. Mitosis and Cell Division in Euglcna

spirogyra Ehrcnbcrg 109

COE, WESLEY R. The Nervous System of Pelagic Ncmcr-

teans 123

No. 3. SEPTEMBER, 1927.

CASTLE, W. A. The Life History of Phtnaria vclata 139

HEATH, HAROLD, AND WILBUR, BLAKE C. The Development

of the Soldier Caste in the Termite Genus Ternwpsis. . . 145

BEAMS, H. W. Maturation Phenomena in Artificial Parthe- nogenesis of Asterias forbesii 155

FRY, HENRY J. The Cross Fertilisation of Enucleated

Echinarachniits Eggs by Arbacia Sperm 173

BOWEN, ROBERT H. A Preliminar\ Report on the Struc- tural Elements of the Cytoplasm in Plant Cells 179

INMAN, O. L. A Pathogenic Luminescent Bacterium 197

BRINLEY, F. J., AND BAKER, R. H. Some Factors Affecting

the To.\'icit\ of Hydrocyanic Acid for Insects 201

GRAVE, BENJAMIN H. The Natural History of Cnmingia tel-

linoidcs 208

iii

' "

iv COXTEXTS OF VOLUME LIII

No. 4. OCTOBER, 1927.

HORNING, BENJAMIN, AND TORREY, HARRY BEAL. Thyroid

and Gonad as Factors in the Production of Plumage

Mclanins in the Domestic Fowl 221

CHAMBERS, ROBERT, AND POLLACK, HERBERT. The pH of

the Blastoccclc of Echinodcrm Embryos 233

BASKERVILLE, M. L. The Permeability of Frog Skin to

Urea:

I. The Influence of NaCl and CaCh 239

//. The Effect of Dextrose and Sucrose 247

DIECKMANN, JOHANNA M. The Cloaca and Sperrnathcca of

Gyrinophilus porphyriticus 258

DIECKMANN, JOHANNA M. The Cloaca and Spermatheca of

Hemidactylium scutatum 281

WHEDON, ARTHUR D. Tlie Structure and Transformation

of the Labium of Ana.v junius 286

No. 5. NOVEMBER, 1927.

ALLEE, W. C, AND SCHUETT, J. F. Studies in Animal Ag- gregations: The Relation between Mass of Animals and Resistance to Colloidal Silver 301

CKABB, EDWARD D., AND RUBY, M. Polyvitclliny in Pond

Snails .- 318

ANDERSON, LOUISE A. The Effect of Alkalies on tlic Oxy- gen Consumption and Susceptibility of Planaria doroto- ccphala 327 \

FRIEDMANN, HERBERT. A Case of Apparently Adaptive Ac- celeration of Embryonic Growth-Rate in Birds 343

CORRINGTON, JULIAN D. Commensal Association of a Spider

Crab and a Medusa 346

GATES, G. E. Regeneration in a Tropical Earthworm Per-

iony.r c.vcai'atus E. Perr 351

BKINLEY, FLOYD JOHN. Studies on tlie Physiological Ef- fects of Hydrogen Cyanide 365

HILDEBRAND, SAMUEL F. Sc.r Ratio in Gainbusia 390

CONTENTS OF VOLUME LIII V

No. 6. DECEMBER. 1927.

FOLGER, HARRY THOMAS. The Relation />V/<v<v;/ the Re- sponses by Arnceba to Mechanical Shock and to Sudden Illumination 40^

HILL, SAMUEL E. Chromosome Numbers in the Genus

Bursa 413

HINRICHS, MARIE A. Ultraviolet Radiation and the fertili- zation Reaction in Arbacia punctulata 416

WHITING, ANNA R. Genetic Evidence for Diploid Males in

Habrobracon 438

HAYWOOD, CHARLOTTE. Carbon Dioxide as a Narcotic

Agent, I 450

KING, ROBERT L. Origin and Description of Bristle in Dro-

sopliila mclanogaster 465

CHILD, C. M. Experimental Localization of New Axes in Corymorplia Without Obliteration of the Original Po- larity 469

Vol. LIII July, 1927 No. i

BIOLOGICAL BULLETIN

THE MARINE BIOLOGICAL LABORATORY.

TWENTY-NINTH REPORT FOR THE YEAR 1926— THIRTY-NINTH YEAR.

I. TRUSTEES AND EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE (AS OF AUGUST

10, 1926) i

LIBRARY COMMITTEE 3

II. ACT OF INCORPORATION 3

III. BY-LAWS OF THE CORPORATION 4

IV. REPORT OF THE TREASURER 5

V. REPORT OF THE LIBRARIAN 10

VI. REPORT OF THE DIRECTORS 16

Statement 1 6

Addenda :

1. The Staff, 1926 24

2. Investigators and Students, 1926 27

3. Tabular View of Attendance 37

4. Subscribing and Cooperating Institutions, 1926 37

5. Evening Lectures, 1926 39

6. Members of the Corporation 40

I. TRUSTEES.

EX OFFICIO.

FRANK R. LILLIE, President of the Corporation, The University of

Chicago.

MERKEL H. JACOBS, Director, University of Pennsylvania. LAWRASON RIGGS, JR., Treasurer, 25 Broad Street, New York City. L. L. WOODRUFF, Clerk of the Corporation, and Secretary of the Board

of Trustees pro tern, Yale University.

EMERITUS.

CORNELIA M. CLAPP. Mount Holyoke College. OILMAN A. DREW, Eagle Lake, Florida.

TO SERVE UNTIL I93O.

E. G. CONKLIN, Princeton University. OTTO C. GLASER, Amherst College.

1 ' "

2 MARINE BIOLOGICAL LABORATORY.

Ross G. HARRISON, Yale University.

H. S. JENNINGS, Johns Hopkins University.

F. P. KNOWLTON, Syracuse University.

M. M. METCALF, Johns Hopkins University. WILLIAM PATTEN, Dartmouth College. W. B. SCOTT, Princeton University.

TO SERVE UNTIL 1929.

C. R. CRANE, New York City.

I. F. LEWIS, University of Virginia.

R. S. LILLIE, The University of Chicago.

E. P. LYON, University of Minnesota.

C. E. McCLUNG, University of Pennsylvania. T. H. MORGAN, Columbia University.

D. H. TENNENT, Bryn Mawr College.

E. B. WILSON, Columbia University.

TO SERVE UNTIL 1928

H. H. DONALDSON, Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology.

W. E. CARREY, Vanderbilt University Medical School.

CASWELL GRAVE, Washington University.

M. J. GREENMAN, Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology.

R. A. HARPER, Columbia University.

A P. MATHEWS, The University of Cincinnati.

G. H. PARKER, Harvard University.

C. R. STOCKARD, Cornell University Medical College.

TO SERVE UNTIL 1927

H. C. BUMPUS, Brown University.

H. E. CRAMPTON, Barnard College.

W. C. CURTIS, University of Missouri.

GEORGE T. MOORE, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.

W. J. V. OSTERHOUT, Member of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical

Research.

J. R. SCHRAMM, University of Pennsylvania. WILLIAM M. WHEELER, Bussey Institution, Harvard University. LORANDE L. WOODRUFF, Yale University.

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE OF THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES.

FRANK R. LILLIE, Ex. Off. Chairman. MERKEL H. JACOBS, Ex. Off. LAWRASON RIGGS, JR., Ex. Off. I. F. LEWIS, to serve until 1927. T. H. MORGAN, to serve until 1927. OTTO C. GLASER, to serve until 1928. CASWELL GRAVE, to serve until 1928.

ACT OF INCORPORATION.

THE LIBRARY COMMITTEE.

C. E. McCLUNG, Chairman.

M. M. METCALF.

J. R. SCHRAMM.

E. E. JUST.

ROBERT A. BUDINGTON.

CHARLES J. FISH.

A. H. STURTEVANT.

ALFRED C. REDFIELD.

FRANK R. LILLIE.

II. ACT OF INCORPORATION.

No. 3170

COMMONWEALTH OF MASSACHUSETTS.

Be It Known, That whereas Alpheus Hyatt, William Sanford Ste- vens, William T. Sedgwick, Edward G. Gardiner, Susan Minns, Charles Sedgwick Minot, Samuel Wells, William G. Farlow, Anna D. Phillips and B. H. Van Vleck have associated themselves with the intention of forming a Corporation under the name of the Marine Biological Laboratory, for the purpose of establishing and maintaining a laboratory or station for scientific study and investigation, and a school for instruction in biology and natural history, and have complied with the provisions of the statutes of this Commonwealth in such case made and provided, as appears from the certificate of the President, Treasurer, and Trustees of said Corporation, duly approved by the Commissioner of Corporations, and recorded in this office;

Now, therefore, I, HENRY B. PIERCE, Secretary of the Common- wealth of Massachusetts, do hereby certify that said A. Hyatt, W. S. Stevens, W. T. Sedgwick, E. G. Gardiner, S. Minns, C. S. Minot, S. Wells, W. G. Farlow, A. D. Phillips, and B. H. Van Vleck, their asso- ciates and successors, are legally organized and established as, and are hereby made, an existing Corporation, under the name of the MARINE BIOLOGICAL LABORATORY, with the powers, rights, and privi- leges, and subject to the limitations, duties, and restrictions, which by law appertain thereto.

Witness my official signature hereunto subscribed, and the seal of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts hereunto affixed, this twentieth day of March, in the year of our Lord One Thousand, Eight Hundred and Eighty-Eight. [SEAL] HENRY B. PIERCE,

Secretary of the Commonwealth.

4 MARINE BIOLOGICAL LABORATORY.

III. BY-LAWS OF THE CORPORATION OF THE MARINE BIOLOGICAL LABORATORY.

I. The annual meeting of the members shall be held on the second Tuesday in August, at the Laboratory, in Woods Hole, Mass., at 12 o'clock noon, in each year, and at such meeting the members shall choose by ballot a Treasurer and a Clerk, who shall be, r.r officio, members of the Board of Trustees, and Trustees as hereinafter pro- vided. At the annual meeting to be held in 1897, not more than twenty-four Trustees shall be chosen, who shall be divided into four classes, to serve one, two, three, and four years, respectively, and thereafter not more than eight Trustees shall be chosen annually for the term of four years. These officers sholl hold their respective offices until others are chosen and qualified in their stead. The Presi- dent of the Corporation, the Director and the Associate Director of the Laboratory, shall also be Trustees, ex officio.

II. Special meetings of the members may be called by the Trustees to be held in Boston or in Woods Hole at such time and place as may be designated.

III. The Clerk shall give notice of meetings of the members by publi- cation in some daily newspaper published in Boston at least fifteen days before such meeting, and in case of a special meeting the notice shall state the purpose for which it is called.

IV. Twenty-five members shall constitute a quorum at any meeting.

V. The Trustees shall have the control and management of the affairs of the Corporation; they shall present a report of its condition at every annual meeting; they shall elect one of their number President of the Corporation who shall also be Chairman of the Board of Trustees ; they shall appoint a Director of the Laboratory; and they may choose such other officers and agents as they may think best ; they may fix the compensation and define the duties of all the officers and agents ; and may remove them, or any of them, except those chosen by the members, at any time ; they may fill vacancies occurring in any manner in their own number or in any of the offices. They shall from time to time elect members to the Corporation upon such terms and conditions as they may think best.

VI. Meetings of the Trustees shall be called by the President, or by any two Trustees, and the Secretary shall give notice thereof by written or printed notice sent to each Trustee by mail, postpaid. Seven Trustees shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business. The Board of Trustees shall have power to choose an Executive Com-

THE REPORT OF THE TREASURER. 5

mittee from their own number, and to delegate to such Committee such of their own powers as they may deem expedient.

VII. The accounts of the Treasurer shall be audited annually by a certified public accountant.

VIII. The consent of every Trustee shall be necessary to dissolution of the Marine Biological Laboratory. In case of dissolution, the prop- erty shall be disposed of in such manner and upon such terms as shall be determined by the affirmative vote of two-thirds of the Board of Trustees.

IX. These By-laws may be altered at any meeting of the Trustees, provided that the notice of such meeting shall state that an alteration of the By-laws will be acted upon.

X. Any member in good standing may vote at any meeting, either in person or by proxy duly executed.

IV. THE REPORT OF THE TREASURER. To THE TRUSTEES OF MARINE BIOLOGICAL LABORATORY.

Gentlemen: As Treasurer of Marine Biological Laboratory, I herewith submit my report for the year 1926.

The books have been audited by Messrs. Seamans, Stetson & Tuttle, Certified Public Accountants (Successors to Messrs. Har- vey S. Chase & Company, who for a number of years have audited the books) . A copy of their report is on file at the Laboratory and is open to inspection by any member of the Corporation.

The principal of the Endowment Fund at the close of the year consisted of securities of the book value of $906,337.50 and cash $112.00. The Income from the Endowment Fund was $47,517.48, and the fee of the Trust Company as Trustee was $787.50, leaving a net income from the Endowment Fund of $46,729.98. A full list of the securities will be found in the Auditor's report.

There was no change in the securities of the Lucretia Crocker Fund during the year. The cash in this Fund at the end of the year was $587.77.

The land, buildings, library and the equipment of the Laboratory excluding the Gansett and Devil's Lane property and the buildings under construction, represents an investment of $1,263,343.05, and after deducting $107,444.95 for depreciation, a net book value of $1,155,898.10.

6 MARINE BIOLOGICAL LABORATORY.

During the year $100,000 was received from the General Edu- cation Board on account of their appropriation of not to exceed $250,000 for the construction of the new apartment house and dormitory, out of which receipt $47,889.86 was paid on account to contractors, leaving a cash balance of $52,247.71.

The Retirement Fund was set up at the end of 1925 consisting of 5 per cent, of the permanent pay roll, to which additions are made at the end of each year on this basis. At the end of 1926 the Fund consisted of :

Securities $2,200.00

Cash 2,443.58 $4,643.58

most of the cash being the appropriation for the year 1926, which has been subsequently invested.

During the year the entire balance of the Gansett mortgage, and $5,000 on account of the Drew mortgage, and $1,000 on ac- count of the Danchakoff mortgage, were paid off, and the indebted- ness of the Laboratory at the end of the year consisted of $5,573.25 in Accounts Payable, and $44,500 in mortgages on its real estate.

The actual receipts and disbursements closely approximated the estimated figures and the expenditures were within the income.

Following is the balance sheet at the end of the year and the condensed statement of income and outgo for the year as reported by the Auditors.

EXHIBIT A.

MARINE BIOLOGICAL LABORATORY BALANCE SHEET, DECEMBER 31, 1926.

Assets Endowment Fund Assets :

Securities in Hands of Trustee Schedule I.. $ 906,337.50 Investment Cash in Hands of Trustee.... 112.00

$ 906,449.50 Lucretia Crocker Fund Assets,

Securities Schedule IT.... $ 4,011.17

Cash Schedule II 587.77 4,598.94 $ 911,048.44

THE REPORT OF THE TREASURER.

Plant Assets :

Land Schedule III $113,167.55

Buildings Schedule III 958,975.88

Equipment Schedule III 121,885.17

Library Schedule III 69,314.45 $1,263,343.05

Less Reserve for Depreciation.

New Dormitory Buildings Con- struction Account $ 47,889.86

Cash in Dormitory Buildings

Fund Account 52,247.71

107,444-95

$1,155,898.10

100,137.57 1,256,035.67

Current Assets : Cash,

In New York Bank $ 522.15

In Hands of Trustees 3,575-oo

In Falmouth Bank 1,562.59

Petty Cash 500.00 $ 6,159.74

Accounts Receivable $ 20,081.98

Inventories,

Supply Department $ 25,865.03

Biological Bulletin 5,881.12 31,746.15

Investments,

Devil's Lane Property $ 31,919.46

Gansett Property 2,530.88

Stock in General Biological

Supply House, Inc 12,700.00

Retirement Fund Assets... 4,643.58

Prepaid Insurance.

51-793-92 4,353.89

1 14,135.68

$2,281,219.79

Liabilities. Endowment Funds :

Friendship Fund, Inc $ 405,000.00

John D. Rockefeller, Jr 400,000.00

Carnegie Corporation 100,000.00

Gain on Sale of Securities 1,449.50

Lucretia Crocker Fund .

$ 906,449.50

4,598.94 $ 911,048.44

8 MARINE BIOLOGICAL LABORATORY.

Plant Funds :

Rockefeller Foundation $ 500,000.00

Friendship Fund Gift of 1925 221,608.61

General Education Board 100,000.00

Other Investments in Plant from Gifts and

from Current Funds 414,789.49

$1,236,398.10 Real Estate Mortgages on Drew and Dancha-

koff Properties 19,500.00

Suspense Interest on Building Fund Cash.. 137-57 1,256.035.67

Current Liabilities and Surplus :

Mortgage Note on Devil's Lane Property.... $ 25,000.00

Accounts Payable 5,573.25

Items in Suspense 58.79

$ 30,632.04 Current Surplus Exhibit C 83,503.64

114,135-68 $2,281,219.79

EXHIBIT B.

MARINE BIOLOGICAL LABORATORY, INCOME AND EXPENSE FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 1926.

Total. Net.

Expense. Income. Expense. Income.

Income, Endowment Fund.. $ 47,517.48 $47.517.48

Donation from General Edu- cation Board for Purchase of Books 10,000.00 10,000.00

Instruction $ 7,556.63 10,475.00 2,918.37

Research 3,125.42 11,650.00 8,524.58

Biological Bulletin and Mem- bership Dues 5,876.06 7,171.54 1,295.48

Supply Department, Schedule

IV 56,539-67 58,213.60 1,673.93

Mess, Schedule V 29,319.52 33,547-55 4.228.03

Dormitories, Schedule VI... 7,927.96 5,680.60 $ 2,247.36

Interest and Depreciation charged to above three De- partments. See Schedules IV, V, and VI (red) 14,695.41 . 14,695.41

THE REPORT OF THE TREASURER. 9

Dividends on Stock in Gen- eral Biological Supply

House, Inc 2,032.00 2,032.00

Rent of Danchakoff Cottage. 226.26 700.00 473-74

Rent of Microscopes 312.00 312.00

Sales of Junk 264.25 264.25

Interest on Bank Balances.. 119.22 119.22

Newman Cottage 78.93 150.00 71.07

Rent of Garage, Railway, etc. 101.47 101.47

Sundry Income 44.40 44-4Q

Maintenance of Plant :

New Laboratory Expense. 15,102.30 15,102.30

Maintenance of Buildings

and Grounds 9,429.95 9,429.95

Chemical and Special Ap- paratus Department.... 6,782.92 6,782.92 Library Department Ex-

Pense 7.354-75 7.354-75

Carpenter Department Ex- pense 1,471.10 1,471.10

Truck Expense 1,000.29 1,000.29

Sundry Expenses 964.67 964.67

Bar Neck Property Expense 375-°o 375.oo

Evening Lectures 210.32 210. j_>

General Expenses :

Administration Expenses.. 11,648.33 11,648.33

Interest on Loans 1,380.00 1,380.00

Endowment Fund Trustees 787.50 787.50

Bad Debts 207.55 207.55

Reserve for Depreciation... 27,513.08 27,513.08

$187.979.11 $94,271.43 $180,182.80 180,182.80 $86,475.12 86,475.12 Balance of Income car- ried to Current Sur- plus— Exhibit C $ 7,796.31 $ 7.796.31

Respectfully submitted,

LAWRASON RIGGS, JR.,

Treasurer.

IO MARINE BIOLOGICAL LABORATORY.

V. THE REPORT OF THE LIBRARIAN, DECEMBER 31, 1926.

The year's acquisitions and accomplishments are greater than those of any year in the history of the library except perhaps of the year when the American Museum turned over to our library many valuable back sets of serials on a long-time loan. This year, the advance over the past ten is in direct proportion to the increase in our available funds due to the generous gift from the General Education Board of $10,000 to be spent in the purchase of back sets and of expensive reference works and monographs. While the $10,000 was spent for the precise purpose to which it was designed, a sum from our own annual budget that we should have spent toward this purpose had we been dependent upon our budget alone, was thus released to furnish extra help, not only in con- nection with the purchases made possible by this sum from the General Education Board, but also in carrying out certain accumu- lated tasks that have now by the end of the year been practically accomplished.

Of serials there were 41 back sets completed, the most notable of these sets being the Comptes Rendus of the French Academy, Vir chow's Archiv, and Die Naturwissenschaften. There were 33 back sets nearly completed, the most notable of these being Pfliiger's Archiv. By exchange we secured 5 complete back sets and 9 partially complete back sets.

One hundred and eleven serials were added to our current re- ceipts, 30 by subscription and 81 by exchange. Many will recall the lists of possible serials that were submitted to the investigators during the summer of 1925. From among those for which we received requests we secured in newly undertaken subscriptions and exchanges.

There were several monographs and reference books purchased among which were Retzius' ' Biologische Untersuchungen," Rich- et's " Dictionnaire de Physiologic," " Norwegian North-Atlantic Expedition," and Glazenbrook's " Dictionary of Physics." Ab- derhalden's " Handbuch " is still being purchased as it comes from the press. Two hundred and eighty-seven books, not expensive reference works or monographs, were added to the library, 133 by purchase and 154 by gift.

REPORT OF THE LIBRARIAN. II

Many publishers in this country have now made acknowledgment of the value to them of cooperation with this library. The effort to secure evidence of the fact that men order books for their college libraries and for their own libraries, from having seen them here, will continue and this evidence will then be sent on to the publisher. We wish to call the very especial attention of the in- vestigators to this point. Concrete proof that the presence of books on display in our " new books " corner of the reading room, does lead to sales, is the only evidence that will induce publishers to continue and to increase these gifts. During the summer of 1926 twelve persons made due acknowledgment and 40 books ex- amined here were recorded as being ordered.

The list of books presented, with the names of the donors in full, follows except for certain instances where we were specifically re- quested not to publish the information.

From the publisher, Felix Alcan : Petronievics, Branislav : L' Evolution Universelle.

E. Arnold and Co. : Cochrane, J. A. : A School History of Sci- ence.

G. Bell and Sons, Ltd. : Dell, J. A. : Animals in the Making.

P. Blakiston's Son and Co. : Brubaker, Albert P. : Text-book of Human Physiology; Curtis, Francis D. : A Digest of Investiga- tions in the Teaching of Science ; Frank, J. O. : Hozv to Teach General Science; Jackson, C. M. : The Effects of Inanition and Malnutrition upon Growth and Structure ; Jackson, C. M. : Mor- ris' Human Anatomy ; Kingsley, J. S. : The Vertebrate Skeleton, from the Developmental Standpoint; Patten, Bradley M. : Early Embryology of the Chick; Strecker, Edward A. and Ebaugh, F. G. : Practical Clinical Psychiatry for Students and Practitioners ; and Whetham, Wm. Cecil D. : The Recent Development of Phvsi- cal Science.

Chemical Catalogue Co. : Kraus, Charles A. : The Properties of Electrically Conducting Systems, including Electrolytes and Met- als.

Wm. T. Comstock and Co. : Riley, Wm. A. and Johannsen, O. A. : Handbook of Medical Entomology.

Thos. Y. Crowell Co. : Eldridge, Seba : Organization of Life.

E. P. Dutton & Co. : Jennings, H. S. : Prometheus.

12 MARINE BIOLOGICAL LABORATORY.

Ginn & Co. : Taylor, Lloyd Wm. : College Manual of Optics ; and Ward, Robert De Courcy : Climates of the United States.

Harcourt, Brace & Co.: de Kruif, Paul: Microbe Hunters; Holmes, S. J. : Life and Evolution; and Holmes, S. J. : Trend of the Race.

Harvard University Press : Do Amaral, Af ranio : South Ameri- can Pit-vipers ; Castle, W. E. : Genetics and Eugenics ; Parker, G. H. : What Evolution Is; and Williston, Samuel W. : The Osteology of the Reptiles.

W. Heffer & Sons, Ltd. : Grey, Egerton Charles : Practical Chemistry for Micro-methods; and Michaelis, Leonor: Practical, Physical and Colloid Chemistry.

Norman W. Henley and Co. : Jacobs, Frederic Burnham : Abra- sives.

Henry Holt and Co. : Osterhaut, W. J. V. : Nature of Life ; and Wilder, Harris H. : The Pedigree of the Human Race.

Houghton Mifflin Co. : Barbour, Thomas : Reptiles and Am- phibians, their Habits and Adaptations.

Alfred A. Knopf : Pearl, Raymond : The Biology of Population Growth; and Singer, Charles: The Evolution of Anatomy.

Lea and Febiger : Appleton, J. L. T., Jr. : Bacterial Infection with Special Reference to Dental Practice; Bush, Arthur Der- mont : A College Text-book of Physiology ; Calkins, Gary N. : Biology of the Protozoa ; Collins, E. Treacher : Arboreal Life and the Evolution of the Human Eye ; Cummer, Clyde Lottridge : A Manual of Clinical Laboratory Methods ; Greaves, Joseph E. : Agricultural Bacteriology; Hargitt, Charles W. and Hargitt, Geo. T. : Outlines of General Biology; Park, Wm. H., Williams, A. W. and Krumwiede, Chas. : Pathogenic Microorganisms ; Phillips, Ruth L. : Vertebrate Embryology ; Richards, A. : A Laboratory Guide in General Zoology; Roussy, Gustav and Bertrand, Ivan: Lessons in Pathological Histology ; and Smallwood, Wm. Martin : A Text-book of Biology for Students in General, Medical and and Technical Courses.

H. K. Lewis and Co. : Bond, C. J. : The Leucocyte in Health and Disease.

J. B. Lippincott Co.: Villager, Emil : Brain and Spinal Cord.

McGraw-Hill Book Co.: Eames and MacDaniels : An Introduc-

REPORT OF THE LIBRARIAN. 13

tion to Plant Anatomy; Eucken, Arnold: Fundamentals of Physi- cal Chemistry; Mitchell, Philip H. : A Textbook of General Physi- ology for Colleges; Sharp, Lester \Y. : An Introduction to Cytology ; Sinnott and Dunn : Principles of Genetics ; Snodgrass, R. E. : Anatomy and Physiology of the Honeybee; and Wieman, H. L. : General Zoology.

The Macmillan Co. : Brinkley, Stuart R. : Principles of General Chemistry; Hegner and Taliaferro : Human Protozoology; Hog- ben, L. T. : Comparative Physiology; Kyle, Harry M. : The Bi- ology of Fishes ; O'Toole, G. B. : Case against Evolution ; Shipley, Sir Arthur E. : Life ; Thurstone, L. L. : The Fundamentals of Statistics; and Whitehead, Alfred N. : Science and the Modern World.

Marshall Jones Co. : Loomis, Frederic Brewster : The Evolution of the Horse.

Masson et Cie : Calmette, A., Negre, L. and Boquet, A. : Manuel Technique de Microbiologic et Serologie.

Oliver and Boyd : Fisher, R. A. : Statistical Methods for Re- search Workers ; and Ponder, Eric : The Erythrocyte and the Ac- tion of Simple Haemolysins.

Open Court Publishing Co. : Bliss, Gilbert Ames : Calculus of Variations ; Cassirer, Ernst : Substance and Function and Ein- stein's Theory of Relativity; Curtiss, David Raymond: Analytic Functions of a Complex Variable ; and Sellars, Roy Wood : Evolu- t ionary Naturalism.

Oxford University Press : Joly, J. : Radioactivity and the Sur- face History of the Earth; and Wissler, Clark: The Relation of Nature to Man in Aboriginal America.

Premier Publishing Co.: Meisel, Max: A Bibliography of American Natural History, the Pioneer Century 1769-1865, vol- ume i.

Les Presses Universitaires de France : Faure-Fremiet, E. : La Cinctiquc du Devcloppcmcnt; Legendre, R. : La Concentration en Ions Hydrogcne de I'Eau de Mcr; and Terroine, T. F. and Zunz, Edgard : Lc Metabolism de Base.

Princeton University Press : Conklin. Edwin G. : Laboratory Directions in General Biology; McClendon, J. F. : Physical Cliem-

14 MARINE BIOLOGICAL LABORATORY.

istry of Vital Phenomena ; and Morgan, T. H. : Evolution and Genetics.

G. P. Putnam's Son : Beebe, Wm. : The Arcturus Adventure ; and Beebe, Wm. : Galapagos Land's End.

W. B. Saunders Co. : Dercum, Francis X. : The Physiology of Mind.

F. A. Stokes Co. : Noyes, Alfred : The Book of Earth ; and Noyes, Alfred : The Watchers of the Sky.

D. Van Nostrand Co. : Arrhenius, S. A. and Leonard, C. S. : Chemistry in Modern Life; Clark, Austin H. : Animals of Land and Sea; Greaves, Joseph E. and Greaves, E. O. : Bacteria in Rela- tion to Soil Fertility; Luckiesh, M. : Foundations of the Universe; Mills, John: Within the Atom; Ross, F. E. : Physics of the Devel- oped Photographic Image ; Tammann and Mehl : States of Aggre- gation ; and Whitney, Milton : Soil and Civilisation.

William Wood and Co. : Fantham, H. B. and Stephens, J. W. W. and Theobald, F. V. : Animal Parasites of Man; and Mathews, A. P. : Physiological Chemistry.

Yale University Press : Haldane, J. S. : Respiration ; Jordan, E. O., Whipple, G. C. and Winslow, C. E. A. : A Pioneer of Public Health; Morgan, T. H. : The Theory of the Gene; and Obermaier, Hugo : The Fossil Man in Spain.

The following books were presented by the authors : Alice, W. C. : Jungle Island ; Keen, William W. : / Believe in God and in Evolution ; and Agersborg, H. P. K. : A Laboratory Manual^in General Animal Biology.

The reprints accumulated for the past five or six years, about 13,000 in number, have been catalogued by author and by subject. The cards, amounting to 40,679, have not yet been filed with the cards of the main catalogue, but they will have been before the summer of 1927. The reprints that came from Dr. Whitman's library, approximately estimated as 5,000 unduplicated by our present holdings, were not included, and the cataloguing of these remains to be done in 1927-1928. Current reprints beginning with those issued in 1926, will not be catalogued by subject but will be catalogued by author only. The subject division and the indices of Biological Abstracts will in the future serve the users of the library for this purpose.

REPORT OF THE LIBRARIAN'. 15

The library now contains 18,220 bound volumes which come under the category of books and serials, about seven-eighths being- serial volumes. There are, moreover, 38,000 reprints, 13,000 of which were catalogued this year. The number of current serials regularly received is 628; although the actual count shows nearly i, 200 titles in our list of serials, nearly half of these are not now continued or are received at rare intervals. Of the 628 serials coming regularly, 204 are paid by subscription and 424 by ex- change with the BIOLOGICAL BULLETIN and by gift.

The budget of the library aside from the special appropriation from the General Education Board totalled the same as in 1925, namely $6,750.00 aside from the regular salaries. The entire amount spent was $6,827.13.

The items under the apportionments as estimated in August, 1925, and as actually spent during the year 1926 are given. The estimated budget was: books, $500; serials, $1,500; binding, $1,000; supplies, $500; service, $50; express, $200; back sets, $3,000. Actually spent, the accounts stand as follows : books, $746.54; serials, $2,730.75; binding, $1,841.44 (current serials, $700.44; back sets, $1,141.00); supplies, $692.23; service, $1,486.22; express, $186.74; and back sets, $352.83.

The increase of the expense of current serial subscriptions is the chief concern of the librarian. Before we secured the special gift from the General Education Board, at the request of the Di- rector of the Laboratory, the Librarian mapped a chart showing a schema for an even and uniform expansion of the library, and the expense attached thereto under each item, through the years 1926- 1930. By this scheme the item of " serials " was to change from the requested appropriation for the year 1926, the amount of $1,500, to $2,283; in 1927> to $2,4995 in 1928, to $2,742; in 1929, to $2,985 ; in 1930 and on, to $3,228. It will be noticed that this year (1926) an amount ($2,454.42) was reached which was much more nearly that planned for 1928. It can be seen by referring to last year's report that the same occurred in 1925, for current seri- als. There are two reasons for this: (i) the increase in prices, and (2) the increase in numbers of the serials we are pressed to secure in current issues. One of two things must be done. A finer discrimination in choice must be exercised to cut out new

1 6 MARINE BIOLOGICAL LABORATORY.

subscriptions, or more money must be added to this section of the budget.

The librarian begs, therefore, to call for more help from the members of the Corporation and from the Library Committee in selecting the current serials, making a finer discrimination than she can make or else in asking for more money from the Executive Committee for the item of " current serials."

Since we realize that we cannot hold all of the literature in our library that is occasionally called for by our investigators, but that these holdings must be distributed over many libraries, we arranged this summer a meeting of librarians, who, like ourselves, are organizing methods of holding the scientific literature of the world available for the use of scientists. Eleven librarians at- tended this meeting and the day was given to a discussion of this subject. In the Fall, the librarian attended a meeting of the East- ern College Librarians where the same subject was presented. At this meeting, Dr. Vernon Kellogg and Prof. C. E. McClung presented the subject from the viewpoint of the National Re- search Council and from the Board of Biological Abstracts re- spectively.

Word was received on the date of February n, 1927, that one of the resolutions passed at the meeting in the summer has been ar- ranged, namely, that the Union List of Serials should be continued in current holding for libraries of Canada and of the United States, by the library of Congress.

THE REPORT OF THE DIRECTORS.1

To THE TRUSTEES OF THE MARINE BIOLOGICAL LABORATORY.

Gentlemen: We beg to submit herewith a report of the thirty- ninth session of the Marine Biological Laboratory for the year 1926.

i. Attendance. Reference is made to the lists of Students and Investigators (pp. 27-36) and to the tabular view of Attendance (p. 37). The number of students was held to the usual quotas

i Dr. Lillie resigned as Director August 10, 1926, and Dr. Merkel H. Jacobs was elected in his stead. The Directors' report for 1926 is therefore a joint report.

THE REPORT OF THE DIRECTORS. l"J

which led to rather severe competition for admission. A conse- quence of this was a very high percentage of graduate students in the classes including some who already had the Ph.D. degree. However, as a definite matter of policy, a certain number of places were held open for undergraduate students in order to encourage those of high attainments with definite professional interests. The number of investigators, including research assistants, was 250. The highest previous attendance was 207 in 1925. At the height of the season every working place both in the old and the new buildings was occupied. That this should happen in the second year of use of the new laboratory gives pause for thought. There has been no artificial stimulation of attendance. The demand for places as a result of better equipment and better library will soon be greater than the supply. Under these conditions it is hoped that the new housing conditions referred to below may serve to distribute the attendance over a longer season and so relieve the pressure somewhat during July and the first half of August. A considerable number of investigators work only during a six weeks' period. If these could be distributed so that some could succeed others in the same working places the accommodations of the Laboratory could be made to serve a larger number of persons.

There was a very gratifying increase in attendance of foreign investigators, who came from England (4), Germany (5), Swit- zerland (2), Brazil (i), India (i), Rumania (i), Italy (i), Rus- sia (2), Japan (2), China (i), Philippines (i), Syria (i), repre- senting as many separate universities or research institutions. These investigators bring with them a genuine stimulating influ- ence; and there results a better understanding of the scientific work of the various countries.

2. Housing Accommodations. In the report of the Director for 1925 attention was called to the lack of adequate and suitable housing accommodations under control of the Laboratory for in- vestigators and students. This had become a condition seriously threatening the growth and usefulness of the Laboratory. For about two months in the height of the summer season there was often not a single room available in the village. The uncertainty of obtaining accommodations combined with the unsuitability or high price of any remaining discouraged attendance. The fact 2

l8 MARINE BIOLOGICAL LABORATORY.

also that the laboratory dormitories were not equipped for other seasons than the summer operated to prevent any who might wish to use the facilities of the laboratories and library at other seasons from doing so. Family accommodations with reasonable sanitary conveniences were conspicuously lacking. In short, the future development of the Laboratory was definitely circumscribed by these conditions.

This matter was accordingly presented to the General Educa- tion Board in the autumn of 1925 with a statement of estimated needs ; their interest was immediately aroused. The architects of the Laboratory, Messrs. Coolidge, Shepley, Bulfinch, and Abbott prepared attractive preliminary plans as a basis for discussion, and these were presented to the General Education Board in April,

1926. The plans provided for two buildings, one intended pri- marily for family accommodations with apartments, the other for individual accommodations of dormitory type. Both buildings were planned of fire-proof construction, with complete steam heating equipment in the apartment house and provisions for fu- ture installation of such equipment in the dormitory. On May 27th, 1926, after careful consideration, the Members and Trustees of the General Education Board authorized its executive officers in their discretion to commit the Board to an appropriation to the Marine Biological Laboratory of a sum not to exceed $250,000 for the construction and equipment of these buildings.

Final detailed plans and specifications were then prepared, bids secured from several contractors in each trade concerned, contracts let and construction begun early in September.

It is expected that these buildings will be ready for use in June,

1927. Both buildings are in the block next to the laboratories, the apartment house opposite the old lecture hall and the dormitory on the corner diagonally opposite facing the Eel Pond. The dormi- tory is estimated to accommodate 102 persons, the apartment house about 56, and other buildings used for housing about 132, including employees, a total of about 290 persons. Each of the new build- ings, includes a commodious commons room, with fire place, for so- cial purposes. Families of Laboratory workers own 58 houses in Woods Hole, of which 19 are on the Gansett tract. There remain but few lots in the Gansett tract, but the large Devil's Lane tract

THE REPORT OF THE DIRECTORS. IQ

of 105 acres provides amply for many years to come. The village also offers accommodations for a considerable number in the form of houses or rooms for rent.

To Mr. Charles A. Coolidge the Laboratory is indebted for reduction of the usual commission of his firm amounting in value to a gift of over $2,000, thus repeating his generosity in the case of the new laboratory. To him as former trustee, as architect and as benefactor of the Marine Biological Laboratory, we owe a deep debt of gratitude.

The following letter to the General Education Board from a Committee of the Board of Trustees has expressed to them our appreciation of their gifts for the upbuilding of the Marine Bio- logical Laboratory.

August 16, 1926. PRESIDENT WICKLIFFE ROSE,

General Education Board, 61 Broadway, New York City.

Dear Dr. Rose: On behalf of the Marine Biological Laboratory and in accordance with the express instructions of its Board of Trustees given at their Annual Meeting on August loth, 1926, we wish to express our appreciation and thanks for the recent generous gifts made by the General Education Board for the Library and dormitories at Woods Hole.

In an Institution like the Marine Biological Laboratory the Library is a central point of organization, and whatever is done to increase its usefulness is a benefit to every student and investigator. The Library has heretofore lacked many books and serials essential to the investi- gator, and this has become increasingly felt as the scope of biological research has widened into the neighboring fields of physics and chem- istry. With the new resources provided by the gift of the General Education Board, the Library bids fair to become one of the most complete collections of its kind in the world. It will not only supply the needs of those working at Woods Hole, but will also supplement the resources of other institutions. Moreover, it now comes into better position to cope with what might be called the alarming rate of growth of biological literature.

The situation as to living conditions has always been a difficult one at Woods Hole; with the recent extensions of the Laboratory it has

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2O MARINE BIOLOGICAL LABORATORY.

become an almost impossible one. Many have come here at a great sacrifice of comfort and convenience for the sake of the opportunity to carry on their studies. The provision of adequate accommodations for students and families will make it possible for many to come who might otherwise be deterred ; and will enable those who do come to live free from unnecessary care. Comfortable living quarters will now be available at all seasons, so that the period during which the Labora- tory may be used will be greatly extended.

We feel that the new developments made possible by these gifts, fol- lowing the completion of the new laboratory building, mark an era in the history of the