From the collection of the

o Prelinger q ' "ibrary

San Francisco, California 2006

THE APPLES OF NEW YORK.

STATE OF NEW YORK DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

THE

APPLES OF NEW YORK

VOLUME I

BY

S. A. BEACH

Horticulturist ASSISTED BY

N. O. BOOTH

Assistant Horticulturist AND

O. M. TAYLOR

Foreman in Horticulture

Report of the New York Agricultural Experiment Station for the Year J903

II

ALBANY

J. B. LYON COMPANY, PRINTERS 1905

NEW YORK AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION.

GENEVA, N. Y., December 31, 1903.

To the Honorable Board of Control of the New York Agricultural Experiment Station :

Gentlemen. I have the honor to transmit herewith Part II of the Annual Report of the New York Agricultural Experiment Station for 1903, to be known as " The Apples of New York". The period of the collection of the data which form the subject-matter of this publication is coincident with the life of the Station, having been begun over twenty years ago by the late Professor Emmet S. Goff, who was the Station's first horticulturist. In 1891 this work passed into the hands of Professor Spencer A. Beach, who is now, fortu- nately, charged with the presentation to tn'e public of the results of this long-continued and costly effort. In the collection and organiza- tion of the information contained in this volume, Professor Beach has had the valued assistance of Professors Wendell Paddock, Charles P. Close, Heinrich Hasselbring and Vinton A. Clark, who have been associated with him in the horticultural department of the Station. Professor Nathaniel O. Booth and Mr. Orrin M. Taylor have not only assisted in the collection of original data, but they have rendered efficient service in the immediate preparation of the text. The publication of this volume, which is confined to the winter varieties of apples, to be followed by a second volume covering the early and fall varieties, is made possible by the generous action of the New York legislature of 1904, and should be regarded as an occasion of justifiable pride on the part of the state, the Station management and the individuals chiefly concerned in the work on its professional side. There is every reason to believe that these two* volumes will take their place as a part of the standard literature of pomology, and will be useful and stimulating to one of the most important industries of the state.

W. H. JORDAN,

Director.

< V '.

PREFACE,

This report on the apples of New York is the outgrowth of one of the lines of investigation which from the first has been a distinctive feature of the work carried on at this Experiment Station. During the period when this Station was being established there was an in- sistent popular demand that the testing of varieties of fruits and vegetables be made a prominent line of work here. Variety testing was accordingly undertaken at once with great thoroughness, as is shown, in part, by the bulletins and reports published by the Station during the first decade of its existence. A collection of apple varie- ties was begun by Professor Goff as early as 1883, and since that time it has been continually enlarged by annual additions. For many years it has been one of the most noteworthy collections of its kind in America. By 1900 it had come to include over seven hundred named varieties of apples and crabapples, besides a large number of unnamed seedlings. Professor Goff resigned his position at this Station to become horticulturist in the University of Wiconsin in 1888, just as the first fruits of the varieties which were grafted into the orchards in 1883 were beginning to appear. He was succeeded here by the writer in the fall of 1891.

Very many of the varieties herein treated have been collected and grown in the Station orchards. Descriptive notes and other records of these varieties have been made year after year till a mass of first- hand information has accumulated which has been invaluable in the preparation of this report. We have also been favored with the cooperation of fruit growers from all parts of the state. Hundreds of them have assisted by giving information concerning the varieties of apples which are known in their respective localities, and in many cases have supplied samples of the fruit. The leading American and some European pomological works have been constantly referred to in verifying descriptions of varieties ; various Experiment Station publications and horticultural reports and periodicals have also been freely consulted.

vii

viii PREFACE.

For one who is interested in growing apples either for home use or for commercial purposes, or in supplying nursery trees for orchard planting, or in any of the industries accessory to that of apple-grow- ing, such as storing and marketing the fruit or manufacturing fruit products, it is at times a great advantage to have accessible for ready reference full descriptions of the different varieties of apples, each under the name which pomological authorities are accepting as correct, together with the list of synonyms by which the variety has been known. It is for the purpose of making such information more generally available that this report on the apples of New York has been prepared. This, the first volume of the report, treats of winter apples which are in season with Hubbardston and Tompkins King or later. Earlier varieties are treated in the succeeding volume.

The following considerations have generally governed the writer in determining what varieties should be noticed in this report.

First, the comparative value of the variety for planting in any part of the state as determined by its record at this Station, by numerous systematic reports collected especially for this report from New York fruit growers and from men interested in buying and storing fruit in New York and elsewhere, by information published in books, cata- logues and periodical literature, and by extensive correspondence.

Second, the probable value in this state of new or comparatively little Known varieties. The opinions which the writer has expressed regarding their probable value are based upon the records which these varieties have made in other regions, their general resem- blance to other varieties which are better known in this state, and their parentage or origin.

Third, many varieties have been noticed, not because they now are or promise to become valuable in New York, but rather because they are not or do not promise to become valuable here. It is quite as im- portant for the inexperienced prospective planter to know what varieties are unworthy as well as to know what ones are the most worthy of his care and attention. This is particularly true in the case of those varieties which are being urged upon New York fruit growers because they have succeeded elsewhere, but which have as yet been tried only in regions where the conditions are markedly

PREFACE. ix

different from those which obtain in New York. In such cases an especial effort has been made to give a conservative estimate of the known or probable value of these varieties to New York fruit growers.

Fourth, some varieties are noticed chiefly on account of their his- torical value. In a report like this it is appropriate to notice old varieties which are becoming obsolete, but which possibly are still in cultivation in this state.

In each full discussion of a variety there is presented first the statement of those matters which seem to be of general interest. With the more important apples this is given in long primer type, while the historical account and the technical descriptions of the tree and fruit are in brevier. With varieties of less importance the entire text is in brevier.

In addition to the description of the variety, there has been given in many cases some estimate of its known or probable value in this state for either amateur or commercial purposes and the conditions which appear to be best adapted for its successful cultivation are sometimes indicated. In order to make the report more complete and thus add to its value as a book of reference many varieties of little importance, or of only local value, are herein described. Usually in such cases but brief comment is given. More extended notice is commonly given to the more important varieties, and many of them are illustrated either by half-tone or colored photo-engravings made directly from the fruit itself instead of from drawings or paintings. In fact, the illustrations form a unique feature of the work because they have all been made from photographs, thus adding greatly to the fidelity and value of the plates. With but few exceptions the photographing has been done under the personal supervision of the author.

In the immediate preparation of this report the writer has been assisted by Professor N. O. Booth and Mr. O. M. Taylor, whose con- stant fidelity and active interest in the undertaking it is a pleasure to thankfully acknowledge. The bibliographical work has, for the most part, been done by Professor Booth, to whom very much of the value of this feature of the report is due. Mr. Taylor has assisted in

x PREFACE.

various ways, particularly in making technical descriptions of the fruits. John A. Maney, foreman of the orchards, has aided in pre- paring" the technical descriptions of the trees. Assistance in making orchard observations and descriptive notes of varieties has been given in previous years by Wendell Paddock, 1893 to 1899; C. P. Close, 1896 to 1899; Heinrich Hasselbring, 1900, and V. A. Clark, 1902 to

1904-

The writer is embarrassed in undertaking to acknowledge pro- perly the many favors which he has received in carrying forward this work. These favors are so various and come from so many different sources that for lack of space the particular personal recognition which he desires to give cannot be made. Fellow workers among professional horticulturists, nurserymen, men inter- ested in buying and storing fruit, apple growers in all parts of the state and particularly members of the State Fruit Growers' Associa- tion and of the Western New York Horticultural Society, all have shown a spirit of cordial interest and cooperation which is gratefully recognized. Special acknowledgment is due to Professors L. H. Bailey and S. W. Fletcher of Cornell University for the loan of books and for the use of a collection of numerous references to Experiment Station publications.

TABLE OF CONTENTS.

PAG«.

Preface vii

Index to Illustrations xiii

Authorities Cited and Abbreviations Used xvii

Botanical Classification I

The Native Home of the Apple 3

The Origin and Development of Apple Culture in New York 4

The Adaptation of Varieties to Particular Regions 18

What Is a Variety ? 20

Description of Varieties 27

Index to Technical Terms 389

Index to Varieties 391

xl

INDEX TO ILLUSTRATIONS.

TEXT FIGURES.

PAGE.

Fig. i. Indian Apple Tree Still Standing near the Geneva Experiment

Station in 1904 5

Fig. 2. Collection of Varieties of Wild Apples from a Hill Pasture at

Chittenango 6

Fig. 2a. The Old Tree Stands as a Reminder of the Days of the Stage

Coach and the Paring-Bee 8

Fig. 3. Longitudinal Cross Section of an Apple Showing Internal

Characters 34

Figs. 4, 5. Longitudinal Sections of the Wild Crabapple Showing Internal

Characters 35

Figs. 6, 7. Transverse Sections of the Wild Crabapple Showing Internal

Characters 35

Fig. 8. Transverse Section of an Apple Showing a Closed Axile

Core 36

Fig. 9. Transverse Section of an Apple Showing an Open Abaxile

Core 37

HALF-TONE PLATES.

FACING PAGE

Aucuba 52

Group of fruit-pickers in the Baldwin orchard of Foster Udell, Brock- port, Monroe county, N. Y 56

Bottle Greening 86

Bullock 90

Canada Baldwin 92

Canada Reinette 94

Clayton 96

Dickinson 106

Doctor 108

Dumelow 112

Dutch Mignonne 114

English Russet 120

French Pippin 134

Gideon Sweet 136

Gilpin 138

Golden Medal 140

Golden Russet 294

Lankf ord 186

xiii

xiv INDEX TO ILLUSTRATIONS.

HALF-TONE PLATES Concluded.

FACING PAGE

Menagere 206

Milden 210

Milwaukee 212

Moore Sweet 220

Newman 224

Northwestern Greening 234

Oakland (reduced size) 234

Occident 236

Oel Austin 236

Opalescent 242

Red Russet 278

Roxbury 294

Schodack 300

Smokehouse 312

Stanard 3H

Stone 320

Texas 336

Vanhoy 35°

Wabash Red 352

Wallace Howard 358

Wandering Spy 360

Willow 370

Windsor 372

COLOR PLATES. View in a Baldwin orchard in the Lake Ontario apple belt Frontispiece

FACING PACE

Akin 40

Arkansas 48

Bailey Sweet 54

Baldwin 58, 60

Ben Davis 68

Bethel 72

Black Ben Davis 76

Black Gilliflower 78

Blue Pearmain 80

Boiken 82

Buckingham 88

Collins 98

Cooper Market 100

Domine no

English Russet 118

Esopus Spitzcnburg 122

Ewalt 124

Fallawater 126

Gano 134

Golden Russet , , 144

INDEX TO ILLUSTRATIONS. xv

COLOR PLATES Continued.

FACING PAGE

Green Newtown 146, 148

Green Sweet 150

Greenville 152

Grimes 154

Holland Winter 160

Hubbardston 162

Hyde King 166

Jacobs Sweet 168

Jewett Red 170

Jonathan 172

Lady 180

Lady Sweet 184

Lawver 190

Lee Sweet (whole fruit) 230

Lee Sweet (section), see Volume II.

Long Island Russet (II) 194

Mann 200

Melon 204

Monmouth 216

Nelson 222

Newtown Spitzenburg 226

Nickajack 228

Northern Spy 230, 232

Olivet- 238

Ontario .... 240

Paragon 246

Peck Pleasant 254

Pennock 256

Pewaukee 258

Pomme Grise 264

Rails 270

Rambo 274, 356

Red Canada 276

Reinette Pippin 280

Rhode Island Greening 282

Ridge 288

Rome 290

Roxbury (2 plates) 292

Salome 298

Scott 302

Shackleford 304

Smith Cider 310

Stark 316

Stayman Winesap 318

Streaked Pippin 322

Sutton 324

Swaar 326

Sweet Winesap ,,,,.,,,, ,...,,...,, 334

xvi INDEX TO ILLUSTRATIONS.

COLOR PLATES— Concluded.

FACING PAGE

Titus Pippin 338

Tolman Sweet 344

Tompkins King 346

Twenty-Ounce Pippin: 34$

Wagener 354

Walbridge 274, 356

Washington Royal 362

Westfield Seek-No-Furihcr 364

White Pearmain 366

White Pippin , . 368

Willow 370

Winesap 374

Winter Banana 378

Yellow Bellflower 382

Yellow Newto wn 148

York Imperial 386

AUTHORITIES CITED AND ABBREVIATIONS

USED.

In the following list of the authorities which have been consulted in preparing this volume the date of publication cited is that of the copyright rather than that of the title page; but where no date for the copyright has been found the date of the title page has been accepted as the date of publication. This has been done for histori- cal reasons, as it appears in most cases that the copyright date is a better index of the time when a book was written than the date given on the title page.

Works issued in series by institutions or by regular organizations, like bulletins and reports of the United States Department of Agri- culture, bulletins and reports of experiment stations, reports of horti- cultural societies and state boards of horticulture and catalogues of nurserymen are not here listed. In referring to such works the citation in each case has been made sufficiently full for the easy identification of the publication.

Albany Cultivator. See Cultivator.

Amer. Agric. American Agriculturist. New York : 1842 to date.

American Cultivator. 1838.

American Farmer. Boston.

Am. (or Amer.) Card. American Gardening. New York: 1892-1904. (Be- fore its union with Popular Gardening, in 1892, was known as American Garden. Both Popular Gardening and American Garden resulted from the union or absorption of many other horticultural periodicals.)

Amer. Card. Cal. American Gardener's Calendar. By Bernard M'Mahon. Philadelphia: 1806.

Amer. Gard. Mag. American Gardener's Magazine. See Mag. Hort.

Amer. Jour. Hort. and Florist's Companion. American Journal of Horticul- ture and Florist's Companion. Boston: 1867-1869. Continued as Tilton's Journal of Horticulture and Floral Magazine. 1869-1871.

An. Hort. Annals of Horticulture. See Bailey, L. H.

An. de Pom. Beige. Annales de Pomologie Beige. See Bivort.

xviii AUTHORITIES CITED AND ABBREVIATIONS USED.

Bailey, L. H. Annals of Horticulture in North America. New York: 1889- 1893. Volume for 1892 contains inventory of apples sold by nurserymen in North America in that year.

Barry. The Fruit Garden. By P. Barry. New York: 1851. Revised edition 1883.

Berghuis. De Nederlandsche Boomgaard. S. Berghuis. Erste deel. Appels. Groningen : 1868.

Biedenfeld. Handbuch aller bekannten Obstsorten. 1854.

Bivort. An. de Pom. Beige. Annales de Pomologie, beige et etrangere. Bruxelles: 1853-1860.

Boston Cultivator. See American Cultivator.

Bredsted. Haandbog i danske Pomologie. Af H. C. Bredsted. 2 det Bind. ^Ebler. Odense. 1893.

Budd-Hansen. American Horticultural Manual. Part II. Systematic Pomology. By J. L. Budd, assisted by N. E. Hansen. Descriptions of Apples by Hansen. New York: 1903.

Can. Hort. Canadian Horticulturist. Toronto : 1878 to date.

Cat. Cong. Pom. France. Catalogue descriptif des fruits adoptes par le Con- gres pomologiques de France. 1867.

Cat. Hort. Soc. London. A Catalogue of the Fruits Cultivated in the Gar- den of the Horticultural Society of London. London: 1826. 2d ed. 1831 ; 3d ed. 1842. A supplement was published in 1853.

Cole. The American Fruit Book. By S. W. Cole. Boston: 1849.

Country Gentleman. Albany: 1853-1865. The Cultivator and Country Gentle- man. Albany: 1866-1897. The Country Gentleman, Albany: 1898 to date.

Coxe. A View of the Cultivation of Fruit Trees. By William Coxe. Phila- delphia: 1817.

Cultivator. Albany : 1834-1865. In 1866 united with the Country Gentleman.

Diel. Versuch einer systematischen Beschreibung der Kernobstsorten. Aug. Fried. Ad. Diel. 1799-1825.

Dittrich. Systematisches Handbuch der Obstkunde. Vol. III.

Dom. Encyc. Domestic Encyclopedia. Willichs. Edited by Mease. Phila- delphia: 1804.

Downing. The Fruits and Fruit Trees of America. By A. J. Downing. 1845. 2d ed., same text with colored plates, 1847. First revision by Charles Downing, 1857. Second revision, 1869. First appendix, 1872. Second appendix, 1876. Third appendix, 1881.

Duhamel. Traite des Arbres Fruitiers. Par M. Duhamel du Monceau. Tome premier. Paris : 1768.

Elliott. Elliott's Fruit Book; or the American Fruit Growers' Guide. By F. R. Elliott. New York: 1854. Revised edition, 1859.

Eneroth-Smirnoff. Handbok i svensk pomologi. Af Olof Eneroth and Alexandra Smirnoff. Vol. 2. Applen. Stockholm: 1896.

Fessenden. The New American Gardener. By Thomas G. Fessenden. Boston: 1828.

Fitz. The Southern Apple and Peach Culturist James Fitz ; edited by J. W. Fitz. Richmond: 1872.

Flotow. See 111. Handb. der Obstk.

AUTHORITIES CITED AND ABBREVIATIONS USED. xix

Floy-Lindley. A Guide to the Orchard and Fruit Garden. By George Lind- ley; edited by John Lindley. American edition by Michael Floy. New York : 1833. New edition with an appendix, 1846.

Forsyth. A Treatise on the Culture and Management of Fruit Trees. By William Forsyth. London : 1802. Same with Introduction and Notes, by William Cobbett. Albany: 1803. Seventh edition (English) London: 1824.

Garden. London : 1872 to date.

Card, and For. Garden and Forest. New York : 1888-1897.

Gardening. Chicago : 1893 to date.

Gartenflora. Berlin : 1852 to date.

Gaucher. Pomologie der Praktischen Obstbaumzuchters. Von N. Gaudier. Stuttgart: 1894.

Genesee Farmer. Edited by Luther Tucker. Rochester: 1831-1839. Then consolidated with Cultivator. Another periodical of same name was pub- lished in Rochester from 1845-1865. Also others of this name.

Goodrich. The Northern Fruit Culturist, or Farmers' Guide. By Chauncey Goodrich. Burlington, Vt. : 1849.

Gregg. A Handbook of Fruit Culture. By Thomas Gregg. New York:

1857- Hoffy. Hoffy's North American Pomologist. Edited by William D. Brinckle.

Book No. I. Philadelphia: 1860.

Hogg. The Fruit Manual. By Robert Hogg. Fifth edition. London: 1884. Hooper. Hooper's Western Fruit Book. By E. J. Hooper. Cincinnati : 1857. Horticulturist. The Horticulturist and Journal of Rural Art and Rural Taste.

Albany, etc. 1846-1875. Founded by A. J. Downing. Other editors were

Barry, Smith, Mead, Williams and the Woodwards.

Hovey. The Fruits of America. 2 vols. C. M. Hovey. Boston : 1851. 111. Handb. Obst. Illustrirtes Handbuch der Obstkunde. (Various authors).

Stuttgart: 1858-1865. Jour. Roy. Hort. Soc. Journal of the Royal Horticultural Society. London :

1846 to date. Vols. 1-9, 1846-55 bear the title of Journal of the Horti- cultural Society of London. Kenrick. The New American Orchardist. By William Kenrick. Boston :

1832. Second edition revised, 1835.

Knoop. Pomologia. Johann Hermann Knoop. Leeuwarden : 1758. Langley. Pomona : or the Fruit Garden Illustrated. By Batty Langley.

London : 1729. Lauche. Deutsche Pomologie. W. La'iche. ^Epfel. Vols. I and II. Berlin :

1882-1883.

Le Verger. Par M. [A.] Mas. 5 vols. in 4. Paris : 1868-1873. Leroy. Dictionnaire de Pomologie. Par Andre Leroy. Paris : 1873. Vols.

3 and 4 devoted to the apple. Lindley. Guide to the Orchard and Kitchen Garden. By George Lindley.

London: 1831. (See Floy-Lindley for American editions.) Lucas. See 111. Handb. Obst. Lucas, Ed. Vollstandiges Handbuch der Obstkultur. Von Ed. Lucas.

Stuttgart: ist ed. 1880; 2d ed. 1886; 3d ed. 1893. Third edition edited by

Fr. Lucas. Lucas, Fr. Die Werthwollsten Tafelapfel und Tafelbirnen. Von Fr. Lucas.

2 vols. Stuttgart: 1893-4.

xx AUTHORITIES CITED AND ABBREVIATIONS USED.

Lyon. Mich. Hort. Soc. Rpt. 1890. This catalogue has been quoted rather

than the earlier ones because it represents more nearly the final opinion of

Mr. Lyon on Michigan fruits. M'Mahon. Card. Cal. See Amer. Card. Cal. Mag. Hort. Magazine of Horticulture. Boston : 1837-1868. First published

under name American Gardener's Magazine 1835-6. Edited by C. M.

Hovey with P. B. Hovey, Jr., associate editor during 1835-6. Manning. Book of Fruits. By Robert Manning. Salem : 1838. Second edi- tion with' title, New England Fruit Book. Revised by John M. Ives.

Salem: 1844. Mas. See Le Verger. Nat. Nurseryman. National Nurseryman. Edited by R. T. Olcott and later

by John Craig. Rochester : 1893 to date. Nat. Hist. N. Y. Natural History of New York. Part V. Agriculture.

By Ebenezer Emmons. Vol. Ill devoted to fruits. Albany: 1851. N. E. Farmer. New England Farmer. Boston : 1822. New Genesee Farmer. See Genesee Farmer. N. Y. Bd. Agr. Mem. Memoirs of the Board of Agriculture of the State of

New York. Vol. III. Albany: 1826. Article and fruit list by Jonathan

Buel.

Oberdieck. See 111. Handb. Obstk. Pom. Brit. See Pom. Mag. Pom. Heref. Pomona Herefordiensis. By Thomas A. Knight. London :

1811. Pom. Mag. Pomological Magazine. 3 vols. London : 1828-30. This work has

also been published under the title Pomona Brittanica. Pomologie. See Gaudier.

Prairie Farmer. Chicago: 1841. Several periodicals of this name. Regel. Russkaja Pomologija. E. Regel. St. Petersburg: 1868. Ronalds. Pyrus malus Brentfordiensis. By Hugh Ronalds. Figures by E.

Ronalds. London: 1831.

Rural N. Y. Rural New Yorker. Rochester and New York: 1850 to date. Syst. Handb. der Obstk. See Dittrich.

Thacher. American Orchardist. By James Thacher. Boston : 1822. Thomas. American Fruit Culturist. By John J. Thomas. Published at

various places. 1st ed. 1846; 2ist ed. 1903.

Todd. The Apple Culturist. By Sereno E. Todd. New York : 1871. Trans. Roy. Hort. Soc. Transactions of the Royal Horticultural Society.

London: 1805-1848. Verger. See Le Verger. Warder. American Pomology. Apples. John A. Warder. New York:

1867. Waring. The Fruit Growers' Handbook. By Wm. G. \Varing. Boalsburg,

Pa.: 1851.

Western Fruit Grower. Edited by J. M. Irvine. St. Joseph : 1896 to date. Wickson. California Fruits. By Edward J. Wickson. San Francisco: 1889.

2d ed. 1891.

Willichs. See Dom. Encyc. Wilson. Economy of the Kitchen Garden, etc. By William Wilson. New

York: 1828.

THE APPLES OF NEW YORK.

BOTANICAL CLASSIFICATION.

The apple is classed with a natural group of plants in which the fruit is more or less fleshy and contains seed cells enclosed by either bony or parchment-like carpels. Some botanists still hold to the older classification in which this group of plants is included in the great order Rosaces under the suborder Poniecr, but there is a tendency among modern botanists to raise the group to the rank of an order under the name Pomacece. In this suborder or order, whichever it may be called, there are several genera. One includes the mountain ashes, one the Juneberries, one the hawthorns, one the quinces, and one the pears, apples and crabapples. This last genus botanists have called Pyrus. Within this genus there are many species of apples and crabapples, most of which are native to the old world. Sargent, from whom the three following descriptions are largely derived, recognizes in the apples which are indigenous to North America the three species named below.1

NATIVE WILD APPLES.

1. Pyrus coronaria L., the fragrant crab, which is found in glades from Canada, Western New York and the shores of Lake Erie southward along the mountains to Alabama and westward to the Missouri valley and Texas. The flowers are large, showy, on slender pedicels, white or rose-colored and delightfully fragrant. Leaves ovate to triangular ovate and often three lobed. The fruit may reach a diameter of one and one- half inches. The calyx is persistent. The skin, which is green or be- comes yellowish, is waxy and has a peculiar aroma. The fruit ripens late, is sour and almost bitter but has long been valued for making preserves. No varieties of this species are cultivated for the fruit.

In the prairie states this species runs into the variety iowensis Wood, which some regard as a distinct species. There are known in cultivation hybrids between this and the common apple as we shall see later. The fruit of ioivensis sometimes reaches a diameter of two inches.

2. Pyrus angustifolia Ait., the native crabapple of the southern states, is much like P. coronaria except that its leaves are not lobed but are lanceolate oblong and acute at the base. The flowers are white or rose- pink and very fragrant; calyx persistent; fruit about one inch in diameter, pale green or yellowish, ripens in winter and is then very fragrant but

N. A., IV: 70-78.

2 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK:. ,

austere. The fruit is used for preserves but no variety of this species is cultivated for its fruit. The species is found from Southwestern Pennsylvania to Florida and west to Tennessee and Louisiana.

3. Pyrus rivularis Doug., the Oregon crabapple, has rather small white flowers, and the calyx lobes become deciduous from the mature fruits. The fruit is about three-fourths of an inch long, oblong, yellowish or blushed, and ripens in autumn. It is used by the Indians. No variety of this species is cultivated for its fruit. This species ranges from Northern California northward along the coast to the Aleutian Islands.

CULTIVATED HYBRIDS OF NATIVE APPLES.

Craig and Hume1 describe four hybrids between the common apple and P. ioivcnsis, or other indigenous American crabapples, which hybrids are cultivated for their fruit in some locations in the Mississippi valley. These are Soulard, Howard (or Hamilton), Mercer (or Fluke) and Ken- tucky Mammoth (or Mathews). The fruits of these hybrids are fit only for culinary uses or for cider. They vary in size from medium to large for a crabapple, are green or yellowish and ripen in winter. These hybrids are valued chiefly where superior hardiness is a prime requisite in a variety, but they are practically unknown and unsought in New York state because there are other kinds which are more valuable here.

SPECIES INTRODUCED FROM THE OLD WORLD.

Ornamentals. Several species of apples or crabapples which are indigenous to the old world are grown in this country for ornamental purposes only, as, for example, the flowering crabs and flowering apples from China and Japan. But we are now particularly concerned with those species which have been brought from the old world to be culti- vated here for their fruit, as shown in the common apple and common crabapple.

The Common Apple. The apples which are grown here for their fruit mostly belong to the species which Linnaeus called Malus. He placed it in the same genus as the pear and thus its botanical name became Pyrus malus L. Recently Britton has separated it from the pear genus on the ground that it has flesh free from grit cells. He mak^s its botani- cal class Malus malus (L.) Britton.2 This species is particularly character- ized by simple, soft leaves: flowers white or partly tinged with deep rose- pink, short-stemmed and borne in a simple umbel; fruit depressed at both ends; calyx persistent. The under side of the young leaves, the young twigs, the buds, calyx lobes and young fruits are commonly fuzzy.

This species is very variable. Under cultivation it has developed innumerable varieties as will be noticed farther on. Some varieties which because their fruit is large are called apples doubtless are hybrids between this species and the one next described.

The Common Crabapple. The crabapples which we cultivate for their fruit are for the most part hybrids between the apple P. malus, and the primitive Siberian crab, or berry crab, called by Linnaeus Pyrus baccata.

1 Native Crabapples and Their Cultivated Varieties. la. Acad. Sci., VII: 123-141. 1899.

2 Flora Nor. States and Can., II: 236.

THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 3

This species, baccata, in its pure forms is readily distinguished from the apple, P. mains. The calyx is eventually deciduous, instead of persistent. The leaves are firm, smooth, bright green and are borne on long, slender, hard leaf-stalks. The twigs are smooth and slender. The ripe fruit is brilliant in color, red or yellow, does not get mellow, varies from three- eighths to three-fourths of an inch in diameter and is borne on long slender stalks. The flowers are large and usually pure white. In some of the hybrids, as, for example, Martha and Currant, the calyx is on some fruits deciduous, or partly so, while on other fruits borne on the same tree the entire calyx may be persistent; also the fruit is large and it is clear that other characters which they show are derived wholly or in part from either baccata on the one hand or from malus on the other.1

It is well to remark that the name crabapple is not applied exclusively to the Siberian crabs and their hybrids but is popularly used to designate indiscriminately small apples whether of the malus species or of some other species, but the term Siberian crab is properly used to indicate the baccata species and its kin.2

THE NATIVE HOME OF THE APPLE.

The original home of the apple, P. malus, is not definitely known. After examining the evidence carefully A. DeCandolle came to the conclusion that it is most indigenous to the region south of the Caucasus, from the Persian province Ghilan on the Caspian to Trebizond on the Black Sea, and that from prehistoric times it has existed in Europe, both wild and cultivated, over an area extending from the Caspian Sea to the Atlantic Ocean, except in the extreme north.3 He cites it as being found wild in the mountains of North- west India, but not in Japan, Mongolia or Siberia.

Marlatt says,4 " The apple industry in Japan is of recent origin, say within the last thirty or forty years. * * * The varieties are our varieties and have been imported from America with the exception of some few European sorts. * * * Prior to the introduction of this fruit from America it was unknown in Japan, the native apple of Japan being a crab, grown more for ornament than for fruit, and a very rare tree, unknown to most Japanese." From the reports of Marlatt and others it appears doubtful whether the Chinese knew this species until cultivated varieties of it were introduced among them from Europe and America.

xSee plate of Martha, in Vol. II of this report.

2 See also Prof. Budd's discussion of this subject in Am. Hort. Man., I: 160. 1902.

8Or. Cult. Plants 233-236. 1885.

* Yearbook, U. S. Dept. Agr. 1902: 161 et seq.

4 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK.

It appears that the native apple of North China is quite different from our common apple, P. mains, but rather like what we call " crabapples."1

Evidently the Siberian crabapple, P. baccata, had its origin farther north and east than P. mains. Bailey cites its habitat as Siberia to Manchuria and the Himalayan region.2

THE ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF APPLE CULTURE IN

NEW YORK.

The principal native fruits of New York, in addition to the wild crab already noticed, are the wild strawberries, red raspberries, black raspberries, dewberries, blackberries, elderberries, cranberries, high-bush cranberries, huckleberries, blueberries, the beach plum along the seacoast, the wild red or Canada plum of the St. Law- rence valley, the wild red or yellow plum of Central and Southern New York, the fox grape in eastern and southeastern parts of the state, the summer grape in the southern counties, and the river-bank or frost grape of general distribution. Improved varieties of the native grapes and of many of the small fruits are now extensively grown both for home use and for market, but so far as New York state is concerned this does not hold true for any of the orchard fruits. Some of the native plums are cultivated in the northern counties to a very limited extent, but, generally speaking, New York orchard fruits are all of old world species.

Introduction of the Apple. In view of the primitive character of our native fruits, it was but natural that the Europeans when they began to form settlements on this continent should bring their favorite fruits with them from the old world. This they did. Some few brought trees or scions of choice varieties, but more fol- lowed the less expensive plan of bringing seeds of selected fruits to plant about their new homes in America, just as their descendants till recent times have continued to do when leaving the older settle- ments of the East to take up pioneer life along the frontier of civilization.

aMarlatt 1. c. Cf. Leroy Diet, de Pom., 3:5. 2Cyc. Am. Hort. 111:1472.

THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 5

The introduction of the apple into New York along with other old world fruits was thus begun nearly three hundred years ago. In the following years, at one time or another, very many of the cultivated varieties of apples of Western Europe were brought here, and this importation has been kept up with each succeeding genera- tion till the present time. In the earliest settlements doubtless the varieties which were first brought into New York were mostly from Holland. Later some came from Germany, France and other con-

FIG. i. INDIAN APPLE TREE STILL STANDING NEAR THE GENEVA EXPERIMENT

STATION IN 1904.

tinental countries, and many from the British Isles, either directly or through neighboring colonies.

The Early Dissemination of the Apple. When once the apple was introduced its dissemination kept pace with the progress of the settlement of the country. In fact, it was carried by Indians, traders and white missionaries far into the wilderness beyond the outermost white settlements. Reports of General Sullivan's expedi- tion, in 1779, against the Cayttgas and Senecas, in describing the Indian villages which were then destroyed, make frequent mention

6 THE APPLES OF NEW YORK.

of peach and apple orchards that were found bending with fruit. Within sight of the Geneva Experiment Station are two very old Indian apple trees, the only ones in this vicinity now left out of many hundreds which the Indians were growing in the clearings about their town of Kanadesaga, which was located here. The illus- tration, Fig. i, shows the present appearance of one of the trees. Both bear winter fruit of medium size. The fruit of one is very good for cooking, that of the other is pleasant flavored, subacid and very good for eating. Neither has been propagated. These trees are interesting as types of the seedling" apples which were most common around the homes of the early settlers, and also to some extent in the Indian villages.

FIG. 2. COLLECTION OF VARIETIES OF WILD APPLES FROM A HILL PASTURE AT

CHITTENANGO.

The Apple now Grows Wild in New York. The apple now grows wild in various parts of New York state. It is notably abundant along fence rows and in hill pastures in some places in Southern and Southeastern New York and on the Onondaga lime- stone formation in Onondaga and Madison counties. Fig. 2 shows the fruit of several wild apples which were found in a hill pasture near Chittenango in Madison county. Some of these are superior to many of the named and cultivated sorts, being more attractive, larger and of better quality.

The Siberian crab has not, to my knowledge, ever been found growing spontaneously either in New York or in any other part of this continent.

THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 7

Primitive Orchards. As the early settlements gradually ex- tended back from the Atlantic coast region the pioneers who over- spread the interior of New York, hewing farms out of the forests, planted around their new homes apple seeds brought from the older settlements or from Europe. It is commonly known that the culti- vated varieties of the apple seldom, if ever, reproduce true from seed. For example, seedlings of large apples may bear very small fruit, seedlings of red apples may bear green or yellow fruit, seed- lings of sour apples may bear sweet fruit. In fact, not often does the fruit of a seedling apple resemble the fruit of the parent closely enough to indicate its parentage clearly. The exceptions to this general statement will be considered later. It appears at first thought that it would be better for the fruit grower if the different kinds of apples came true from seed, as garden vegetables do. Then lie could supply himself with as many trees of a kind as he liked by simply growing seedlings of that kind instead of propagating the variety by budding or grafting, as is now done. But from another point of view the great variability of the apple seedlings is a most valuable feature. It has made possible more rapid progress than could otherwise have been made in developmg varieties especially well adapted to succeed in the new world. Large numbers of Euro- pean apples have been tried in America, but the great majority have failed to maintain themselves alongside of American varieties, and soon have been discarded from American orchards and nurseries. But among the innumerable seedlings of infinite variety which have been grown on this continent during the last three hundred years certain ones have been found from time to time that succeed better in this country than those kinds do which have been brought in from Europe. So also in the region west of the Great Lakes the varieties which are succeeding best are selections from seedlings which have been originated in that region. This is in accordance with what appears to be a general rule, that the varieties originating in any section, probably because they have been selected on account of their capacity to fit the conditions, gradually supersede those brought in from outside. This holds true with regard to different sections of this country, and, as we shall see later, even of different regions within New York state.

8

THE APPLES OF NEW YORK.

The fruit from the seedling trees would now be called " natural " or " seedling " fruit in distinction from grafted fruit ; in the early days, however, and even within the last half century, the fruit of these seedling apples was also called " common " fruit, a designation which might have arisen because of the abundance of such trees at that time. Such apples were then used chiefly for feeding to stock and for cider-making, being on that account often called cider apples. The surplus, if there were any, was usually allowed to rot because there was no profitable way of disposing of it.

FIG. 2a. THE OLD TREE STANDS AS A REMINDER OF THE DAYS OF THE STAGE- COACH AND THE PARING-BEE.

In many parts of New York, especially in the eastern two-thirds of the state, there are still seen portions of the primitive seedling orchards varying in age from fifty to one hundred years, or possibly more. The old trees, having outlived their companions, stand as silent reminders of the days of the stage-coach, the hand-loom, the spinning-wheel, and the paring-bee, and of the time when the farmer generally considered his winter supplies incomplete unless there were several barrels of cider stored in the cellar.

THE APPLES OF NEW YORK. 9

Mixed Orchards. It is pretty certain that grafted fruit was known in the earliest orchards to a limited extent only. In an appendix to Cobbett's American edition of Forsyth's Fruit Trees, published in Albany, 1803, there is a communication from a member of the State Agricultural Society, Peter W. Yates, in which he remarks concerning the practice of grafting and budding (inocu- lating) in America:

' The practice of grafting and inoculating in America is but of modern date. It was introduced by Mr. Prince, a native of New York, who erected a nursery in its